In Crim. 100A, we discussed the definition of crime, ideology and scholarships theory and practice, the crimes of imperialism, the crimes of capitalism, the crimes of racism, the crimes of sexism, and crimes by the state. We critiqued legal and liberal sociological definitions of crime which were grounded in theories of society that attempt to justify and legitimate conditions of inhumanity, exploitation and inequality. We argued for a human rights definition of crime which expanded the legal definition to include system crimes (i.e., racism, sexism, etc.) and crimes by the state. Herman Schwendinger was the guest lecturer, and expanded upon issues which he and Julia Schwendinger developed in their articles. Liberal conceptions of crime limit the inquiry of criminologists to the crimes of the powerless, and result in a science of crime and social control limited to narrow technocratic solutions or social engineering. In our view, legally defined "criminals" were really victims of the larger system crimes such as imperialism and racism which denied whole classes of people (and even countries) their full human potentiality and their right to survival, self-determination and dignity. Robert Scheer spoke to the class about the dynamics of imperialism. He drew parallels between the U.S. war against Vietnam and legal principles developed at the Nuremburg War Criminal Trials. Paul Jacobs discussed several examples of crimes by the state, including the operations of agents provocateurs, FBI intelligence gathering and the treatment of political dissent. Percy Moore, Lin Chi Wang, and Philip Veracruz offered a fascinating analysis of economic exploitation as it affected Blacks in West Oakland, Chinese-Americans working in sweatshop conditions in San Francisco's Chinatown, and the struggle of the farm workers. Films used included "Hiroshima-Nagasaki," "The Battle of Algiers," "Growing up Female," "Hunger in America," "The Murder of Fred Hampton," and 'The Winter Soldier Investigation."
During the second quarter (Crim. 100B), we examined social control and the criminal justice system. The material was organized around an historical understanding of the Progressive Era (1880-1920), which was the crucial period for the construction of the modem Criminal Justice System and the Welfare State in the United States. Lectures covered the struggles of the period, involving race oppression, class struggles, Americanization, and the rise of "rational" models of social control. We pointed out such institutions as the juvenile court, the indeterminate sentence, the reformatory, the eugenics movement, Americanization programs, the rise of private police forces and counter-insurgency techniques which emerged out of the sociopolitical conflicts of this period. After putting forth the historical foundations, we discussed liberal theories of social control, the rise of social control agencies and their relationship to the political economy, liberation struggles, the contemporary injustices of the criminal justice system, and the hegemonic functions of social control.
During the previous quarter, students expressed a desire to hear the "liberal position" on these issues. To answer this request we invited several spokespersons from "establishment" or liberal viewpoints. These included a local police chief, an FBI agent, a criminal justice planner, and an Assistant District Attorney. These guests were given complete freedom to express their views, and the sessions resulted in lively question and answer periods in which students had the opportunity to raise critical questions with each speaker.
We invited Elliott Currie to talk about his historical research on the rise of the reformatory movement in the United States. Elaine Brown and Ericka Huggins discussed the experience of the Black Panther Party with the criminal justice system; Earl Caldwell and Carolyn Craven spoke about the management of news, the harassment of reporters by police and FBI agents, and the one-sided nature of most crime reporting. Films in the Crim. 100B course included "Burn," "Law and Order," and the "Attica Commission Report." (This year we added films made by the United States Army about the placing of Japanese-Americans into concentration camps in the western United States.)
I. Prospects For A Radical Criminology
Tony Platt, "Prospects for a Radical Criminology in the United States." Crime and Social Justice 1 (Spring/Summer, 1974).
Alexander Liazos, "The Poverty of the Sociology of Deviance: Nuts, Sluts, and Preverts." Social Problems 20(1) (Summer, 1972).
II. Praxis and the Definition Of Crime
Herman and Julia Schwendinger, "Defenders of Order or Guardians of Human Rights?" Issues in Criminology 5(2) (Summer, 1970).
David Gordon, "Class and the Economics of Crime." The Review of Radical Political Economics 3(3) (Summer, 1971).
Paul Jacobs, "Precautions Are Being Taken By Those Who Know: An Inquiry into the Power and Responsibilities of the AEC." The Atlantic (February, 1971).
Marlene Dixon, "Academic Roles and Functions." The Insurgent Sociologist 2 (Spring, 1972).
Ruth and Victor Sidel, "The Human Services in China" and Frank Riesman, "Postscript: The Politics of Human Service: China and the United States." Social Policy 2(6) (March-April,1972).
Mao Tse-tung, "Speech at the Chinese Communist Party's National Conference on Propaganda Work." Peking: Foreign Language Press.
III. Crime of Imperialism
Robert Scheer, "The Languageof Torturers." Sundance (August-September, 1972).
Harry M. Cleaver, Jr., "The Contradictions of the Green Revolution." Monthly Review 24 (June 1972).
Michael T. Klare, "Policingthe Empire." Commonweal (September 18, 1970).
IV. Crimes of Exploitation
Felix Greene, "The Face of Capitalism," in The Enemy. New York: Vintage, 1971.
Howard Wachtel, "Capitalism and Poverty in America: Paradox or Contradiction?" Monthly Review 24 (June, 1972).
V. Crimes of Racism
Ben Tong, "Ghetto of the Mind: Notes on the Historical Psychology of Chinese Americans." Amerasia Journal l(l) (November, 1971).
"The Panther 21: To Judge Murtagh," in Law Against the People. Edited by Robert Lefcourt. New York: Vintage, 1971.
Tom Hayden, The Love of Possession Is a Disease with Them (pp. 98-118). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972.
Marvin Harris, "The Rise of Racial Determinism" and "Spencerism," in The Rise of Anthropological Theory. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1968.
VI. Crimes of Sexism
Juliet Mitchell, "Women: The Longest Revolution." New Left Review (November-December 1966).
Susan Griffin, "Rape: The All-American Crime." Ramparts (September, 1971).
Dorie Klein, "The Etiology of Female Crime: A Review of the Literature." Issues in Criminology 8(2) (Fall, 1973).
VII. Crimes of Survival
Alan Sutter, "Playing a Cold Game." Urban Life and Culture (April, 1972).
Barry Krisberg, "Gang Youth and Hustling: The Psychology of Survival." Issues in Criminology 9(1) (Spring, 1974).
George Jackson, Soledad Brother (pp. 3-16). New York: Bantam Books, 1970.
John Pallas and Bob Barber, "From Riot to Revolution." Issues in Criminology 7(2) (Fall, 1972).
VIII. Crimes by the State
Eldridge Cleaver, "Domestic Law and International Order," in Soul on Ice. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.
Paul Takagi, "A Garrison State in a 'Democratic' Society." Crime and Social Justice 1 (Spring/Summer 1974).
Alan Wolfe, "Political Repression and the Liberal Democratic State." Monthly Review (December, 1971).
Tony Platt, "The Triumph of Benevolence: The Origins of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States," in Criminal Justice in America: A Critical Understanding. Edited by Richard Quinney: New York: Little, Brown, 1974.
IX. People's Justice
"The Struggle Inside." Pamphlet prepared for the Prison Action Conference, University of California, Berkeley, January 28-30, 1972.
Michael Tigar, "Socialist Law and Legal Institutions," in Law Against the People. Edited by Robert Lefcourt. New York: Vintage, 1971.
Arthur Waskow, "Community Control of the Police." Transaction (December, 1969).
Harold Nelson, "The Defenders: A Case Study of an Informal Police Organization." Social Problems 15(2) (Fall, 1967).