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A Journal of Crime, Conflict & World Order

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Abstracts for Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005):

Emerging Imaginaries of Regulation, Control, and Repression

We Have Never Been Liberal -- Bourgeois Identity and the Criminal(ized) Other

Tony Kearon

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 5-19. Buy PDF

This article examines the ways in which, from the mid-19th century onwards, sections of the emerging professional managerial class re-imagined and re-presented the subaltern other as an integral part of the construction of a defensible "liberal" middle-class identity. It identifies two distinct stages in the relationship between middle-class liberal identity and the criminal(ized)other. Initially, this "identity work" was predicated on the existence of a suitably deviant (and suitably redeemable) other as the subject of notionally inclusive/reformist project. The other has come to be used as a source of oppositional identities and cultural practices. In both stages, the other has been constructed in a manner that both re-inscribes the subaltern other as deviant, and ignores the complexities of the lived experiences of socially and economically marginal groups.

Key words: liberal identity, Otherness, criminalization

Extremes of Otherness: Media Images of Social Exclusion

Chris Greer (Northumbria University) and Yvonne Jewkes (University of Hull)

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 20-31. Buy PDF

This article explores mediated extremes of otherness, and the fluid relationships between different categories of deviant. It considers the role of popular media discourses as sites of "inclusion and exclusion," and conceptualizes the demonization of "others" as existing along a spectrum of deviance. At one end of the spectrum are "stigmatized others," those less serious offenders who are portrayed as being of society, but not in it. At the other end of the spectrum are "absolute others"; the most serious offenders portrayed as being in society, but not of it. The analysis is informed by a range of classic theories and concepts, but it seeks to refract existing research approaches through a lens that focuses on alternative aspects of the crime-media nexus. In particular, the authors aim to develop a more reflexive level of explanation by using psychoanalytic theory to problematize public fear of loathing, and propose that large sections of society may share more in common with certain categories of deviance than they care outwardly to acknowledge. The article suggests that the repulsion expressed through the popular media to particular forms of offending facilitates the continued public denial of the fact that that those who commit crimes are not "others." They are "us," and are of our making.

Key words: media, representation, otherness, inclusion and exclusion, stigmatization, psychosocial, vindictiveness, guilt

The Feminization of the Corporation, the Masculinization of the State

Simon Hallsworth

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 32-40. Buy PDF

This contribution focuses on emerging particularities within institutional imaginaries of regulation and control. Hallsworth demonstrates and explains how, while corporate image and life seem to be feminizing in a globalizing economy, state authority and state intervention adopt conspicuously masculine imagery and attitude.

Key words: corporation, state authority, feminization vs. masculinization, gendered imaginaries

"That Heavy Machine": Reprising the Colonial Apparatus in 21st-Century Social Control

Mark Brown

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 41-52. Buy PDF

The 21st century has witnessed a range of penal and quasi-penal measures of astonishing severity. These strategies of exclusion, such as post-prison civil commitment statutes, mark a profound shift in the long-established structure of rights and obligations under which citizens live. This article proposes that such strategies reflect the reemergence of a colonial form of power and the rationalities and apparatus that support it. The subject of these new strategies of exclusion is in many ways a "new colonial subject" of power. The author develops a theoretical frame for understanding colonial power and state-subject relations and applies it to three contemporary measures of exclusion.

Key words: penal theory, exclusion, colonialism, colonial power, governmentality

From Santander to Camilo and Che. Graffiti and Resistance in Contemporary Colombia

Farid Samir Benavides-Vanegas

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 53-61. Buy PDF

This article reads political graffiti by Colombian students as deliberately un-named assemblages of resistance that -- unsigned, nameless, and hybrid -- seem to harbor a capacity to mobilize a wide variety of social grass-roots energy. The author examines the ways in which the micro-sociological practices of everyday life become a site of struggle between incorporation and resistance in the face of the inscription of the neocolonial imperative on the fabric of the urban environment. His article explores the ways in which (in a Latin American context) processes of cultural and economic imperialism, symbolically associated with the United States, are resisted through a diverse range of socio-spatial practices, most notably the use of graffiti, to re-appropriate physical spaces and reconfigure them as explicitly resistant, oppositional, and counter-hegemonic.

key words: Colombia, graffiti, resistance, namelessness, grass-roots mobilization

Negotiating Metropolitan Spaces and Identities: A Historian's Reading of Tactics in 1920's New York Homicide Trials

Shani D'Cruze

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 62-74. Buy PDF

This article explores how migrant identities negotiate urban space and construct or maintain their boundaries. Analyzing transcripts of homicide trials dating from the 1920s, the author races how the negotiating and highly "tactical" voices of immigrant women in early 20th-century New York subtly demonstrate how identities in transition manage these processes of urban negotiation.

Key words: homicide, migrant identities, tactics of identity, women, 1920s New York

New Arrivals: Participatory Action Research, Imagined Communities, and "Visions" of Social Justice

Maggie O'Neill, Phil Woods, and Mark Webster

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 75-88. Buy PDF

This article focuses on early 21st-century Britain, and on the re-imagination of local and global community and visions of social justice in and though the interchanges between migrants and local communities. Reporting from action research with groups of immigrants and British local authorities, the authors analyze how particular visions of social justice are and can be evoked and mobilized to arrive at more just interactions with and subsequent settlements by immigrant populations.

Key words: immigration, Britain, participatory action research, visions of justice, local community

Imagining the Crime Victim: The Rhetoric of Victimhood as a Source of Oppression

Sandra Walklate

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 89-99. Buy PDF

The preoccupation with safety that is a concomitant feature of the risk society manifests itself in a number of ways. Jock Young talks of this in terms of the shift from the inclusive to the exclusive society and the rise of vindictiveness. David Garland discusses its manifestation in policy terms in relation to the extension of "responsibilization" and the "culture of control." Although each of these analyses presumes the importance of the crime victim, they do not delve deeply enough into this importance. Building on recent critiques of the culture of control, this essay argues that there is a further process of importance relatively unacknowledged in the "culture of control" thesis. That is the shift from the determined state to the hegemonic state. Drawing on Jessop's work, Walklate argues that only at this level of analysis can the importance of imaging the crime victim be understood.

Key words: crime victim, culture of control, hegemonic state

Radgies, Gangstas, and Mugs: Imaginary Criminal Identities in the Twilight of the Pseudo-Pacification Process

Steve Hall, Simon Winlow, and Craig Ancrum

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 100-112. Buy PDF

In this article, the authors offer data from their ongoing ethnographic study of criminality in a former industrial town in the northeast of England, and attempt an initial analysis of the important relationship between mass media, the imagination, and the cultural practices of criminal masculinities in locales of permanent economic recession. They contend that a market demand for mediated images of instrumental, violent, and criminal individuality has emerged among specific cultural forms that inhabit the twilight of an historical pseudo-pacification process. This process, because it ultimately depends upon the maintenance of the serviceability that pacified social interaction can offer the free-market economy, is now in a dangerously weakened condition.

Key words: masculinity and violence, consumerism and youth identities, crime and economic change

Imagining Terrorism: Terrorism and Anti-Terrorism Terrorism, Two Ways of Doing Evil

Jayne Mooney and Jock Young

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 113-125. Buy PDF

This article examines two aspects of dehumanization, which are perspectives that feed off each other, but facilitate violence against other human beings. It looks at the reciprocal sanitization of evil in the West and the beautification of evil in the Muslim world that rationalize unspeakable interpersonal violence. The authors analyze the definition of violence and explore the thin line that differentiates conventional war from terrorism. In short, this essay compares the stereotypical imaginaries of occidentalist terrorism with orientalist "antiterrorism terrorism." This comparison generates the insight that both ultimately lead to violence that in turn leads each to mutually reinforce the other in a vicious circle of hate and global conflict.

Key words: Abu Ghraib, definition and discourse of terrorism, counterterrorism, high-technology warfare, state and nonstate violence

Deep Structures of Empire: A Note on Imperial Machines and Bodies

Ronnie Lippens

Citation: Social Justice Vol. 32, No. 1 (2005): 126-133. Buy PDF

The article locates current neo-imperial imaginaries in a reconfiguration/re-imagining of the global "body politic." Starting from Hobbes, and analyzing and situating the increasing use of biological metaphors to implicitly and explicitly represent the neoliberal state and reconfigure the problems it faces at the start of the 21st century, the author traces the emerging practices of the naturalization of dominant ideologies, practices, and beliefs, the reconfiguration of oppositional practices as challenges to the "natural" order, the re-imagining of deviance as disease (and the concomitant use of metaphors of drastic, invasive medical treatments to characterize responses to these challenges), and the implicit reassertion of dominant neoliberal discourse as natural and inevitable. This contribution expands on a current, subtle shift in the imaginary of Empire -- a shift from the imagination of Empire as highly effortful, ever-unaccomplished engineering, to the imagination of Empire as accomplished nature. The relevance of this shift for matters and issues of regulation and control are outlined.

Key words: neoliberalism, Hobbes, neo-imperialism, the body politic, international relations

Copyright © 2005 by Social Justice.